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23rd October 2017

EQUIPMENT DESIGN AND FABRICATION

Research activities under this programme involve the design, construction and evaluation of various structures, systems and equipment used in post harvest technology. In the past years various research outputs in this programme has been tailored towards the realization of specific mandates of the institute. The following are the achievements of the programme;
i.      The development of the use of ventilated yam barn for the storage of fresh yam tubers.
ii.     The development of Diffuse Light Store (DLS) for storage of potato
iii.     Improvement of the “rhumbu” for the storage of dry grains in the dry areas of the country to make them fumigatable.
iv.    Development of Evaporative coolers for storage of fresh fruits and vegetables
v.     Development of Packing House for handling, packaging and long term storage of fruits.
vi.    The design, fabrication and development of various dryers                                                  

  • Solar tray,
  • Multipurpose dryer,    
  • Hybrid dryers, and
  • Tent dryers.
  • Electrically powered dryers for conducting drying experiments

  vii.       Design, construction and evaluation of different models of fish smoking kilns. Improved fish smoking kiln was designed and     fabricated and cat fish samples smoked in them to the drying efficiency as well as fuel use efficiency of the constructed kilns. The fish smoking kiln were made in three different models namely;

1.    All metal free convention smoking kiln: the internal wall is made of galvanized sheet while the external wall is made of mild steel. The combustion can be fired directly using fire woods or with charcoals placed in a container.
2.    Metal covered with wood (free convention) fish smoking kiln: this is similar to the all metal model with the only difference being the use of plywood as the external wall of the kiln.
3.    All-Metal forced convention fish smoking kiln: the distinguishing feature of this model is the incorporation of a fan to activate air movement and uniform distribution of heat in the kiln. However, only charcoal pot can be used with the system.
The smoking kilns are in 25 kg and 50 kg and can be constructed with higher capacities based on request.




 

 

CEREALS AND PULSES

Storage of Cereals and Pulses

Farm Level: The Institute has developed the use of rhumbus and cribs for the storage of un-threshed sorghum heads/ maize on cobs at farm level.  

Domestic/Household level – The institute observed that 25% of grains produced in the country are stored at household.  Hence hermetic storage in airtight containers (plastic or metal drums/buckets), polyethylene-lined (hessian) bags without the use of chemicals were developed.

Organic Materials as Pesticides: The institute has carried out research on the use of plant materials (Dennettia tripetala and Piper guineense). Nigerian derived Diatomaceous Earth (DE) has also been used for the control of insect pests such as sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica. Inert materials such as dolomite dusts and cow bone dusts have also been used for the control of Maize beetles. 

Commercial/Large levels- Standard warehouse storage in jute bags and with effective pest control.

Bulk storage/Inert Atmosphere Silo: this is a technology that creates an inert atmosphere within an air-tight metal silo through the elimination of oxygen gas and replacing the gas with nitrogen gas. It has been used to store grains for over three years without losses. This technology is safe as no chemical is used throughout the storage period; incidence of moisture condensation is completely eradicated and there’s zero tolerance to insect survival. 45 tons of Cowpea was stored for 24 months in Ibadan station, 100 tons of wheat was stored at the Headquarters for 39 months.

Plant Materials (Botanicals)

Nigerian Derived Diatomaceous

 

 



 

Internal features of the fish box

Dried fish packed in composite packaging material

NSPRI Fish-Potato Snacks

 
Fish Smoking Kiln NSPRI Periwinkle Meat

Further Enquiries: Dr. P. O. Pessu
Tel: 08033151997
Email: pessupo@nspri.org.ng or pattypessu@yahoo.com





 

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable and are preferred in the fresh form. As a result efforts in this area have been geared towards the development of technologies that can extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables in the fresh form without appreciable lost in quality. The Institute has developed some simple technologies suitable for improving the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables. Important technologies are the vegetable baskets, the Ventilated fruit shed and the Evaporative coolant structures (ECS).

1.  Vegetable baskets: this is used for short time storage of vegetables. It is designed for use by vegetable sellers to keep the leafy vegetables fresh in the course of selling.

2.  Evaporative cooling structures:
ECS operates on the cooling effect produced as a result of evaporation. It can be used for preserving tomatoes because their storage chambers generate atmosphere of reduced temperature and high relative humidity the ECS can be applied to reduce ambient temperature by 8 – 13 0C and raise relative humidity of the chamber to 82 – 98%. There are three types of ECS developed by the Institute. The models developed by the Institute are: Pot-in-Pot cooler, Tin-in-Pot cooler, Brick-in- Brick or Block-in-Block coolers and Metal-in- block coolers.

3.  Ventilated fruit shed
This structure is used for conditioning of fruits. When tomatoes are harvested (even in cool day) there is usually increase in the temperature of the fruits in the course of transporting them, as a result the fruits needs to be kept in a place where they are exposed to enough ventilation that can remove the built up heat. This will keep the tomatoes fresh and firm. Fruit sheds provide cool environment and proper ventilation which help to reduce fruit spoilage on the farm, and at village or urban markets. The structure can serve as a collection centre for fruits during transportation from harvest points to storage or market centres. Figure 1 show the improved fruit shed developed by NSPRI.

4.  Packing House
This is a modern facility for preserving fruits. It provides cool environment for packing and storage of fresh fruits. The facility encompasses the sorting of fruits before the introduction to the packing line, where the fruits are washed, dried and sorted into various sizes and packed into plastic crates and then stored in the cold room where the required environmental condition (temperature and relative humidity) is provided for preservation. This technology is already in use in NSPRI, headquarters. Figure 5 show some of the facilities used in packing house.

 

 

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